mounts harddrive NTFS
mount -t ntfs /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows -o umask=000,users,rw
unmount mounted harddrive
-m10 max 10 hops -w2 wait 2 seconds
ping -c5 -i2 IPADDRESS
5 pings interval 2 seconds
nmap -sS -sV -O -v -D www.aol.com,ads.web.aol.com,ads.aol.com
dd output_file or dd if=input_file of=output_file
ex. dd if=/dev/fd0 of=/tmp/floppy.image from 3.5 to image
dd bs=2x80x18b < /tmp/floppy.image > /dev/fd0 from image to 3.5
Copying a CD to a File on your Filesystem
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=image.iso
cat /dev/cdrom >image.iso
Create an Image from a floppy
dd if=/dev/fd0 of=fileforshadows.img
Creating an ISO Image
mkisofs -RJ -o image.iso /burndirectory/
mkisofs -J -o image.iso /burndirectory
rmdir removes empty directories
rm removes files and directories
-f no prompts -r all files in directories
rm -f -r directory name
mv renames or moves files
cp copies files
cat view contents of file
less same as cat
ps -A shows all running processes
uptime This command displays a one line summary showing.
d This command displays a one line summary for the current user listing
free This command displays statistics on memory usage. The values represent KB's
w user info
df This command displays information for each file system.
env This command lists all shell (environment) variables and their contents for the current user.
top This command display a full screen of information of the top processes. It will update automatically until the program is stopped. To stop the display, enter q.
procinfo procinfo gathers some system data from the /proc directory and prints it formatted on the screen.
lspci or lspci -vvv view pci data for hardware
nice/ renice changes cpu throtlleing aka # of how a command is processed so it doesn't get all the priority of cpu
Disk Usage Check
du -k -h -s (directory)
du -k -h
chmod option name
Numeric Code Permissions
700 User: read, write, execute
755 User: read, write, execute
Group: read, execute
777 User: read, write, execute
707 User: read, write, execute
Other: read, write, execute
chown newowneroffile nameoffile
chgrp newgroup nameoffile
-rw------- (600) -- Only the user has read and write permissions.
-rw-r--r-- (644) -- Only user has read and write permissions; the group and others can read only.
-rwx------ (700) -- Only the user has read, write and execute permissions.
-rwxr-xr-x (755) -- The user has read, write and execute permissions; the group and others can only read and execute.
-rwx--x--x (711) -- The user has read, write and execute permissions; the group and others can only execute.
-rw-rw-rw- (666) -- Everyone can read and write to the file. Bad idea.
-rwxrwxrwx (777) -- Everyone can read, write and execute. Another bad idea.
Here are a couple common settings for directories:
drwx------ (700) -- Only the user can read, write in this directory.
drwxr-xr-x (755) -- Everyone can read the directory, but its contents can only be changed by the user.
Each permission setting can be represented by a numerical value:
r = 4
w = 2
x = 1
- = 0
When these values are added together, the total is used to set specific permissions - more specific than changing permissions with the alphabetical "shorthand."
rw-rw-rw- (666) rw= 4+2= 6, Rember the first bit is user, second group, third other
apt-get update -- retrieves the latest list of software and updates available through apt-get. You should run this command before using other apt-get commands (you must run this at least once).
apt-get upgrade -- performs an upgrade for all obsolete software on your system.
apt-get install packagename -- installs software on your system. The package is the name of the RPM (see following table).
apt-get -- displays other apt-get options
apt-get dist-upgrade performs upgrade of entire system
Remove Kernels RPM
To remove old entries in the boot menu, simply uninstall the old kernel packages. That will get rid of the boot menu entries automatically, too.
Example (user "root" at command-line):
$ uname -r
$ rpm -qa | grep kernel
[b]# rpm --query --all 'kernel*' or rpm --query --all kernel
# rpm --erase [color="red"]kernel-2.4.20-19.9[/color]
Open a terminal as root and update your urpmi sources:
# urpmi.update -a
Read the advisory so you know what kernel version to install; for instance if the filename is kernel-220.127.116.11mdk-1-1mdk.i586.rpm you will want to execute:
# urpmi kernel-18.104.22.168mdk
# rpm -e kernel-2.4.8-26mdk
kernel (hd1,0)/boot/vmlinuz root=/dev/hdb4
Grub Boot Floppy
Create a filesystem in your floppy disk (e.g. mke2fs /dev/fd0).
Mount the floppy on somewhere, say, /mnt.
Copy the GRUB images to the directory /mnt/boot/grub. Only stage1,
stage2 and menu.lst are necessary. You may not copy *stage1_5.
Unmount the floppy.
Run the following commands (note that the executable grub may reside in
a different directory in your system, for example, /usr/sbin):
/sbin/grub --batch --device-map=/dev/null <device (fd0) /dev/fd0
How to Make A Grub Boot Screen
picture file 14bit color resolution saved as *.xpm then compressed to *,xpm.gz
1. xpm.gz file type
3. 14 colors only
1. Gzip your xpm file and put it into your /boot/GRUB directory (or to any directory of a /dev/hda1 partition). (do: `gzip myfile.xpm`)
Using the gimp: Image > Mode > Indexed change colors to 14 and check "no color dithering to prevent guessing of colors.
Scsi Emulation for grub add the following lines
hdd=ide-scsi after kernel location specs
Grub Reboot In case kernel is bad after recomplie edit grub.conf
default saved # This is important!!!
fallback 1 # This is important!!!
savedefault fallback # This is important!!!
Now set grub to boot off the new kernel next boot
etc/modules.conf (stores all your loadable modules uncomment for desired one)
modprobe (module name) start module immediately after adding it
modules-update updates afer commenting mondules.conf
rmmod (module name) removes module
change id:5:initdefault: to id:3 to disable gdm. xdm ie: X gui logon
etc/fstab mounts for file systems
sshd : ALL : allow
To Allow normal users to be able to shutdown your pc:
chmod a+s /sbin/shutdown
xf86config x86config-4 or XF86Config xorg.conf x server graphics settings
/usr/X11R86/lib/X11/fonts or /usr/share/fonts
xf86config xf86cfg X -configure xfree86 -configure
.xinitrc put (exec Xwindow) so you can just type startx program start on x program &
example: exec fluxbox This must be place as the last execute command
To Chose what Windows Manager You Use Type:
Run 2 X windows
By default X uses the display :0
To open a second display, use another number f7 and f12
startx -- :1
Of course, to run X on screen 2, you'd use the command startx -- :2, and so on.
Do the following below by editing your X config file in /etc/X11
Shutting down Monitor with X make sure acpi is in the kernel
add Option "DPMS" to the Monitor Section and also Section Device
add Option "OffTime" "20" to Server Layout
test with xset dpms force off or standby or suspend
Increase Font Size using different dpi values
Place settings in monitor section
DisplaySize 280 210 (320x240) also looks good the lower the number the larger
the fonts 4 to 3 ratio 70x4 70x3
320x240 for 1024x768 and 1280x1024
xrandr -s display size changes resolution
Xrandr another way to alter X resolutions
Taking Screenshots from Command Line
import -window root -pause 2 screenshot.jpg
Stop Nvidia Spash Screen
Put in your X config file located in /etc/X11/
Option "NoLogo" "1" # add this line to remove the Nvidia boot logo
Enable 3rd Mouse wheel Scroll
Put in your X config file located in /etc/X11/
Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"
Option "Device" "/dev/mouse"
Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5" # adding this line worked
Move mouse with keyboard
Hit shift and numlock key, Then use num lock keypad to move mouse. Hit shift and numlock key to disable
put in etc/X11/xorg.conf
Option "Composite" "Enable"
Option "RENDER" "Enable"
Then run the following command: xcompmgr -c &
Then transset .2
(note: 0 = fully see through, 1 = no transparency)
Change defaultserverargs="" to defaultserverargs="-nolisten tcp"
Cntrol D exits terminal
CTRL F1 THRU F7 Switch dispays for multitask with virtual consoles
CTRL C cancels a command
CTRL Z stops a command
q exits all console based commands ex less
VI editor for files
:w will save (write) the file
:q will exit the editor.
:q! forces the exit when you want to quit a file containing unsaved changes.
:wq will save and exit
:w newfile will save the text to newfile.
:wq! overrides read-only permission (if you have the permission to override permissions, for instance when you are using the root account.
yy will copy a block of text.
n p will paste it n times.
:recover will recover a file after an unexpected interruption.
dd erase line
shift d erase last typed section
Ctrl X C close
Ctrl X f open file
ctrl X S save files
All servies are stored there /etc/init.d/
/# /etc/init.d/httpd start starts service
/# /etc/init.d/httpd stop stops service
/# /etc/init.d/httpd restart restarts service
In Slackware the services are in /etc/rc.d ie /etc/rc.d/rc.httpd start/stop/restart
To have your terminal cleared, add clear to your ~/.bash_logout script:
$ echo clear >> ~/.bash_logout
If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new user, do the same for the /etc/skel/.bash_logout:
# echo clear >> /etc/skel/.bash_logout
If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add tts/0 to /etc/securetty:
# echo "tts/0" >> /etc/securetty
Clear Bash History
put this in ~/.bashrc
if [ -f ~/.bash_history ]; then
Kernel Security /etc/sysctl
Change kernel parameters and variables on the fly you need CONFIG_SYSCTL defined in your kernel. This is default in a standard 2.4 kernel.
Drop ping packets
# /bin/echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_echo_ignore_all
Ignore broadcast pings
# /bin/echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts
Disable source routed packets
# /bin/echo "0" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/accept_source_route
Disable redirect acceptance
# /bin/echo "0" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/accept_redirects
Protect against bad error messages
# /bin/echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses
Enable reverse path filtering
# for i in /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/*; do
/bin/echo "1" > $i/rp_filter
Log all spoofed, source routed and redirect packets
# /bin/echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/log_martians
Deactivate IP forwarding
# /bin/echo "0" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
Limiting User Processes
edit /etc/limits and add:
* U 150
edit /etc/security/limits.conf and add:
@users soft nproc 100
@users hard nproc 150
* hard core 0
Openssl encryption of files
Encrypting with password
openssl enc -aes-256-cbc -salt -in password.txt -out password.txt.enc
openssl enc -d -aes-256-cbc -in password.txt.enc -out password.txt
openssl des3 -salt -in file.txt -out file.des3
openssl des3 -d -salt -in file.des3 -out file.txt -k mypassword
Generating random passwords
openssl passwd password
openssl passwd -1 -salt xxxxx password
openssl passwd -apr1 -salt xxxxxxxx password
gpg -c to encrypt with password
gpg -d decrypt
Disable terminal beep
# setterm -blength 0
If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot you need to put this command in /etc/conf.d/local.start. However, this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the target terminal, like this:
Using setterm (bis)
# setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1
For: *.tar.gz, *.tgz, *.z, *.Z, *.taz, *.tar.Z
tar -zxf filename.tgz
is the same as:
tar -xf filename.tar
For: *.bz, *.bz2, *.tbz, *.tbz2, *.bzip2
tar -Itf filename.bz
is the same as:
tar -xf filename.bz
bunzip2 file name
Creates tar directory with name
tar xvf gaim-0.59.8.tar.gz -C new-directory
tar xvjf *.bz2
tar xvzf *.gz
tar xvf *.tar
tar -zcvpf name.tar.gz
Decompress Harddrive tar
tar -zxvpf name.tar.gz
To Unzip Multiple Tar.gz Files Type this code into a Console window:
for i in *.tar.gz; do tar xzvf $i; done
To Rename/move files
for n in *.dist; do mv $n `basename $n .dist`; done
DVD Playback linking drive obviously ln command
ln -sf /dev/hdc /dev/dvd
ln -s path/to link/to
Activating my rear speakers
installl alsaguimixer and raise bar for WAve Surround :-)
tune2fs -c and -C
drives must not be mounted
ssh -l username host change ssh damemon settings /etc/ssh might wanna change ssh port for security reasons
Creating ssh key
#/usr/bin/ssh-keygen -t dsa
This will add two files in your ~/.ssh/ directory called id_dsa and id_dsa.pub. The file called id_dsa is your private key and should be kept from other people than
yourself. The other file id_dsa.pub is to be distributed to every server that you have access to. Add the key to the users home directory in ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
and the user should be able to login.
For non standard ports use the -o option
sftp -oPort=23 hostname
To Rotate dns servers
put in /etc/resolv.conf
options timeout 1
For Dhcp: To Prevent long wait for lease
ifconfig eth0 your_ip broadcast broadcastip netmask your_netmask up
route add default gw your_gateway
echo "nameserver your_nameserver" > /etc/resolv.conf
ip: 192.168.0.2 broad: 192.168.0.255 mask: 255.255.255.0 Gateway: 192.168.0.1
nameserver: 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199
How To ascertain broadcast ip: if ip is 192.168.1.20 then broadcast is 192.168.1.255
Kill programs that won't die
kill -s 9 PID
kill -HUP PID
Alt+B // Go back one word
Alt+F // Go forth one word
Ctrl+K // Delete everything from the cursor to the end of the line
Ctrl+U // Delete everything from the cursor to the beginning of the line
Ctrl+Y // Paste deleted characters at the current position
Ctrl+H // Delete one character
Ctrl+L // Clean screen
Ctrl+P // Go to the previous history entry
Ctrl+N // Go to the next history entry
Fix Kde Sound Server problems
remove -F -S keys to arts
cdrecord -v gracetime=2 dev=/dev/hdd speed=40 -dao driveropts=burnfree -eject -data foo.iso
for i in *.mp3 ; do lame --decode $i $i.wav ; done